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In this "Sid the Science Kid" activity from Episode 109: The Perfect Pancake, learners make applesauce to explore irreversible change. Learners compare and contrast apples that have been changed by heat with apples that haven't been changed. This activity includes a "Sid the Science Kid" video showing how to conduct the investigation. Safety note: adult supervision required. [Activity is publicly available through a web crawler capture on]

Quick Guide

Preparation Time:
5 to 10 minutes

Learning Time:
10 to 30 minutes

Estimated Materials Cost:
$5 - $10 per group of students

Age Range:
Ages 4 - 6

Resource Types:
Activity, Experiment/Lab Activity, Lesson/Lesson Plan


Materials List (per group of students)

  • 8 apples, peeled and cut into chunks. (Double this amount and the amount of water and sugar if you are cooking for a lot of learners.)
  • 1/2 c. water
  • measuring cups and spoons (for water, sugar, and cinnamon)
  • 1/2 c. sugar (optional)
  • cinnamon (also optional)
  • heat source-stove or slow cooker
  • two bowls
  • wooden spoon and/or potato masher


  • Physical Sciences
    • Heat and Thermodynamics
      • Heat and Temperature
    • States of Matter
      • Changes of Phase
  • The Nature of Science
    • The Scientific Process
      • Asking Questions
      • Conducting Investigations
      • Gathering Data
      • Formulating Explanations
      • Communicating Results

Informal Categories

  • Food and Cooking


To use this activity, learners need to:

  • see
  • taste
  • touch

Learning styles supported:

  • Links STEM to other topics of interest such as arts and humanities
  • Involves hands-on or lab activities


Components that are part of this resource:

This resource is part of:

Access Rights:

  • Free access



  • All rights reserved, The Jim Henson Company, 2008

Funding Sources:

  • Corporation for Public Broadcasting
  • Vinci
  • MetLife
  • The RoseHills Foundation
  • S.D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation
  • John W. Carson Foundation
  • The Arthur Vining Davis Foundations