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In this activity (page 23 of PDF), learners conduct an experiment to determine how the size and mass of a projectile affects the area and the volume of an impact crater. Learners will use formulas to calculate the circumference and mass of projectiles and measure the diameter and depth of an impact crater. This lesson also includes extension activities: Analyzing the formula for the volume of sphere (p4650), and calculating the volume of a crater (p3235). The Moon Math: Craters! guide follows a 5E approach, applying concepts of geometry, modeling, data analysis to the NASA lunar spacecraft mission, LCROSS.
 10 to 30 minutes
 45 to 60 minutes
 $10  $20 per group of students
 Ages 8  14
 Activity, Experiment/Lab Activity, Lesson/Lesson Plan
 English
Quick Guide
Materials List (per group of students)
 Shallow pan
 Soillike substance
 Bed sheet (or other drape for spreading on the floor under the pan of soil)
 Measuring tape
 Assortment of spherical projectiles that are of different size but of different masses (see page 24 of PDF for suggestions)
 Triple beam balance (or other means of measuring the mass of spherical projectiles)
 Activity D  Projectile Experiment Data Sheet (pp. 5860 of PDF)
Subjects

Earth and Space Science

Astronomy
 Probes, Satellites and Spacecraft

Solar System
 The Moon
 Asteroids and Comets

Astronomy

Mathematics

Algebra
 Equations and Inequalities
 Variables and Expressions

Data Analysis and Probability
 Data Collection
 Data Representation

Geometry
 Plane Geometry

Measurement
 Size and Scale
 Circles

Number and Operations
 Exponents

Algebra

Physical Sciences

Structure and Properties of Matter
 Mass and Weight
 Volume and Density

Structure and Properties of Matter

The Nature of Science

The Scientific Process
 Conducting Investigations
 Gathering Data
 Formulating Explanations
 Communicating Results

The Scientific Process
Audience
To use this activity, learners need to:
 see
 read
 be mobile
 touch
Learning styles supported:
 Involves handson or lab activities
Other
Includes alignment to state and/or national standards:
This resource is part of:
Access Rights:
 Free access
By:
 NASA
Rights:
 Public domain, ,