In this activity related to plant biotechnology, learners transform a strain of E. coli using green fluorescent protein from a bioluminescent jellies. This lab will help learners understand recombinant DNA techniques, including the transformation procedure using the heat shock method, the uses of marker or reporter genes in molecular biology experiments and how to screen for a gene of interest, how DNA can be transferred to another organism and therefore change the observable characteristics of that organism, and how to calculate transformation efficiency. Learners will also become familiar with sterile technique and decontamination procedures to safely handle bacteria. Although the E. coli strain used in the experiment is non-pathogenic, it's important to emphasize proper safety precautions and adult supervision is highly recommended. Modifications for younger learners are included in a related PDF (see related resources). This resource also contains background information, safety tips, and questions with answers for learners.